Welcome / People / Research staff

Research staff

Adjunct Professor (ISCAL - Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração de Lisboa, Politécnico de Lisboa )

Ph.D. in Economics (Nova SBE, 2015), B.A. in Economics (Nova SBE, 2004).

Research interests:

Entrepreneurship; International Business.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Coordinator of CEFAGE's UAlg branch

Ph.D. in Industrial and Business Studies (University of Warwick, 2003), M.Sc. in Economics and Econometrics (University of Manchester, 1996), B.A. Business Studies (U. Algarve, 1995).

Research interests:

Performance Measurement and Management; Efficiency, Effectiveness and Equity Assessment in the Provision of Health Services; The use of the Nonparametric Technique 'Data Envelopment Analysis’ for Formative Evaluation.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Algarve, 2001), M.Sc. in Management and Economic Sciences (U. Algarve, 1996), B.A. in Economics (U. Católica Portuguesa, 1988).

Research interests:

Economic Growth; Macroeconometrics; Public Policies.

Adjunct Professor (ISCAL - Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração de Lisboa, Politécnico de Lisboa )

Ph.D. in Financial Economics and Accounting (U. Extremadura, 2017), M.Sc. in Statistics and Operational Research (U. Lisboa, 1993), B.A. in Statistics and Operational Research (U. Lisboa, 1988).

Research interests:

Financial Mathematics; Sustainable Finance; Socially Responsible Investment; Operational Research.

Associate Professor (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Coordinator of CEFAGE's UBI branch

Ph.D. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2000), M.Sc. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 1998), B.A. in Business Management (U. Beira Interior, 1989).

Research interests:

Corporate sustainability; Supply Chain Management; LARG SCM; Performance Measurement Systems.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D in Public Economics, Planning and Political Economics (U. do Algarve, 2004), M.Sc. in Economics and Business Sciences (U. do Algarve, 1996), B.A. in Management (U. do Algarve, 1990).

Research interests:

Shrinking cities; Quality of Life; Sustainability; Fiscal Federalism; Public Policies.

Associate Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Évora, 1996), M.Sc. in Economics (ISEG/UTL, 1991), B.A. in Economics (U. Évora, 1985).

Research interests:

Macroeconomics; Economic Growth and Sustainability; Economic Education.

Assistant Professor (Universidade Nova de Lisboa)

Coordinator of CEFAGE’s Industrial, Labour and Spatial Economics research group

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 2001), B.A. in Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 1993).

Research interests:

Industrial Organization.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D. in Management (Sheffield Hallam University, 2001), M.Sc. in Management (ISCTE, 1996), B.A. in Management (Universidade do Algarve, 1992).

Research interests:

Strategy formulation and implementation; Quality management; Quality and certification; TQM and ISO 9000 implementation; Entrepreneurship; Performance management.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Psychology (U. Évora, 2017), M.Sc. in Psychology (U. Lisboa, 2000), B.A. in Psychology (U. Lisboa, 1985).

Research interests:

Career counseling process; Career development of disadvantaged populations.

Coordinator Professor (Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal)

Ph.D. in Management (U. Évora, 2008), M.Sc. in Social Economics and Policy (ISEG/UTL, 1998), B.A. in Economics (U. Lusíada de Lisboa, 1994).

Research interests:

Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Service Sector.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Marketing (ISCTE, 2007), M.Sc. in Marketing (ISCTE, 1996), B.A. in Management (ISCTE, 1992).

Research interests:

Brand; Identity Signs; Brand Identity; Brand Image; Brand Reputation; Brand influencies on consumer behavior; Services Marketing.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Doutorado em Gestão com Especialização em Finanças e Contabilidade (University of Edinburgh, 2008), Mestre em Investigação em Gestão (Cranfield University, 2005), Mestre em Finanças (U. Algarve, 2003), Licenciado em Economia (U.Algarve, 2001).

Research interests:

Finanças Empresariais; Mercado de Capitais; Contabilidade.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Algarve, 2000), M.Sc. in Strategy (ISEG/UTL, 1994), B.A. in Management (U. Algarve, 1990).

Research interests:

Consumer Behaviour; Choice/Decision Models; Tourism Economics; Risk and Uncertain Behaviours; Markets and Pricing, Social Behaviour, Rationality.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Vice-Director of CEFAGE

Ph.D. in Management (ISCTE, 2006), M.Sc. in Organization and Information Systems (U. Évora, 2001), B.A. in Business Management (U. Évora, 1997).

Research interests:

Econometrics; Econophysics; Financial Markets.

Assistant Professor (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Ph.D. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2016), M.Sc. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2012), B.A. in Business Management (I.P. Beja, 2008).

Research interests:

Strategic Alliances; Intellectual Capital; Entrepreneurship; Performance Evaluation.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Management (U. Évora, 2001), M.Sc. in Agricultural Economics (Institut Agronomique Mediterranéen de Montpellier, 1996), B.A. in Animal Production Engineering (U. Évora, 1993).

Research interests:

Agribusiness and Agricultural Economics; Natural Resources and Environmental Economics; Business and Economics.

Assistant Professor (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Ph.D, in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2002), M.Sc. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 1996), B.A. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 1991).

Research interests:

SME Management; Co-operation between Firms; Strategic Alliances; Entrepreneurship; Inter-organizational and Business Networks, Innovation; Organizational Learning; Leadership.

Adjunct Professor (Instituto Politécnico da Guarda)

Ph.D. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2014), M.Sc. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2000), B.A. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 1995).

Research interests:

Finance; Financial Economics; Entrepreneurship.

Associate Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Bristol, 1998), M.Sc. in Mathematics Applied to Economics and Business (ISEG/UTL, 1992), B.A. in Economics (U. Évora, 1988).

Research interests:

Applied Econometrics; Labour Economics; International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment.

Coordinator Professor (ISCAL - Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração de Lisboa, Politécnico de Lisboa )

Ph.D. in Economics (ISCTE-IUL, 2002), M.Sc. in Monetary and Financial Economics (ISEG-UTL,1996), B.A. in Economics (ISEG-UTL, 1994).

Research interests:

Macroeconomics; Economic Growth; Agent-based Models; Nonlinear Dynamics.

Adjunct Professor (ISCAL - Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração de Lisboa, Politécnico de Lisboa )

Ph.D. in Economics (ISCTE, 2015), M.Sc. in Monetary and Financial Economics (ISCTE, 2010), B.A. in Mathematics Applied to Economics and Management (ISEG, 1996).

Research interests:

Financial Contagion; Financial Crises; Financial Markets; Behavioral Finance.

Ph.D. in Economics (NOVA School of Business and Economics, 2010), B.A. in Economics (NOVA School of Business and Economics, 2004)

Research interests:

Political Economy, Public Economics, International Economics, Macroeconomics

Adjunct Professor (Instituto Politécnico de Santarém)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Lusíada de Lisboa, 2008), M.Sc. in International Economics (ISEG/UTL, 2002), B.A. in International Relations (U. Minho, 1995).

Research interests:

Intra- Industry Trade; Foreign Direct Investment; Migrations; Dynamic Panel Data Model.

Associate Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Vice-Director of CEFAGE

Ph.D. in Business Management (U. Évora, 1995), B.A. in Zootechnic Engineering (U. Évora, 1986).

Research interests:

Agri-Food Marketing; Agri-Food Quality; Consumer Behaviour.

Coordinator Professor (Escola de Hotelaria e Turismo da Madeira)

Ph.D. in Economics (UTL/ISEG 2013), M.Sc. in Strategic Management and Tourism Development (U. Madeira, 1998), B.A. in Tourism Management (Instituto de Novas Profissões, 1992), B.A in Hotel Management (Universidade Internacional de Lisboa 1988).

Research interests:

Tourism/Transport Economics; Applied Economics/Statistics (tourism); Destination Image; Loyalty Guests; Productivity and Efficiency Modeling; Innovation and Technology, Tourism Competitiveness.

Assistant Professor (Universidade Portucalense)

Ph.D in Economics (University of Warwick, 2012), M.Sc. in Economics (University Pompeu Fabra, 2007), B.A. in Economics (U. Porto, 2001).

Research interests:

Economic Growth; Income Inequality.

Assistant Professor (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Ph.D. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2005), M.Sc. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 1996), B.A. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 1991).

Research interests:

Flexibility in Manufacturing Systems; Importance of Human Resources in Quality Improvement; Organizational Learning and Quality Improvement; Quality Improvement in Smaller Organizations; The Implementation of Management Control Practices in SMEs.

Assistant Professor (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Porto, 2013), B.A. in Economics (U. Porto, 2007).

Research interests:

Economic growth; Inequality.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D. in Economics (U.Algarve, 1999), M.Sc. in Managment and Economic Sciencs (U.Algarve, 1996), B.A. in Economics (U.Católica de Lisboa, 1983).

Research interests:

Labour Market; Macroeconomics.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Management (U. Évora, 2009), M.Sc. in Finance (ISCTE, 2000), B.A. in Business Management (U. Évora, 1995).

Research interests:

Management and Cost Accounting; Performance Management; Value Creation Process.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D. in Management (University of Edinburgh, 2009), M.Res. in Management (Cranfield University, 2005), M.Sc. in Corporate Finance (U. Algarve, 2002), B.A. in Business Management (U. Algarve, 1999).

Research interests:

Security Analysts; Going-Concern Audit Opinions; Market-Based Accounting Research; Financial Ratios.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Évora, 2003), M.Sc. in Monetary and Financial Economics (ISEG/UTL, 1997), B.A. in Economics (U. Évora, 1993).

Research interests:

Labour Economics; Regional Labour Markets and Labour Mobility; Monetary Economics.

Assistant Professor (Universidade Nova de Lisboa)

Coordinator of CEFAGE's UNL/FCT branch

Ph.D. in Economics (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2001), M.Sc. in Economics (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 1996), M.Sc. in Economics (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1996), B.A. in Economics (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1989).

Research interests:

Quantitative and applied macroeconomics; Quantitative financial and business economics.

Especialista Informático (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Ph.D. in Management-Information Systems (U. Beira Interior, 2019), M.Sc. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2015), B.A. in Mathematics\ Information Tecnnology (U. Beira Interior, 2006).

Research interests:

Information Systems.

Assistant Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 2000); B.A. in Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 1995).

Research interests:

Fisheries economics; International environmental agreements; Tourism and the environment.

Full Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Economics (M.I.T., 1994), M.B.A. (INSEAD, 1989), B.A. in Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 1985).

Research interests:

Industrial Organization; Decision Theory; Game Theory.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Management (U. Sevilla, 2005), M.Sc. in Industrial Management and Strategy (ISEG/UTL, 1997), B.A. in Business Management (U. Évora, 1993).

Research interests:

Information Systems; Internet; E-Government and E-Business.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Évora, 2003), M.Sc. in Applied Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 1997), B.A. in Economics (U. Évora, 1991).

Research interests:

Regional and Urban Economic Development.

Researcher (Universidade do Algarve)

P.H.D. in Tourism (U. Algarve, 2012), M.Sc. in Economics and Management of S&T (ISEG, 1995), B.A. in Economis (ISEG, 1991).

Research interests:

Tourism; Innovation; Urban and regional economics; Spatial econometrics.

Researcher (Gabinete de Estudos - CMVM)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. South Carolina, 1990), B.A. in Economics (U. Porto, 1982).

Research interests:

Financial Economics; Behavioral Finance; Corporate Governance.

Associate Professor (Universidade do Algarve)

Scientific coordinator of CEFAGE

Ph.D. in Management Science (University of Strathclyde, 2004), M.Sc. in Economics and Econometrics (University of Manchester, 1995), B.A. in Business Management (U. Algarve, 1993).

Research interests:

Performance Measurement and Management; Efficiency Assessment and the Data Envelopment Analysis; Strategy Implementation and the Balanced Scorecard.

Full Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Coordinator of CEFAGE’s Strategy, Entrepreneurship and Operations research group

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Northeastern, 1995), M.Sc. in Economics (U. Northeastern, 1991), B.A. in Economics (U. Calcutá, 1988).

Research interests:

Entrepreneurship; Innovation; International Management.

Associate Professor (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Coordinator of CEFAGE’s Macroeconomics, Growth and Development research group

Ph.D in Economics (U. Nova Lisboa, 2004), B.A. in Economics (U. Beira Interior, 1999).

Research interests:

Economic Growth; Business Cycles.

Full Professor (Universidade da Beira Interior)

Coordinator of CEFAGE's Finance research group

Ph.D. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2001), B.A. in Management (ISEG/UTL, 1988).

Research interests:

Corporate Finance; Financial Institutions and Small Business Financing; Small Business Management and Entrepreneurship.

Ph.D in Economics (U.Évora, 2017), M.Sc. in Monetary and Financial Economics (ISEG/UTL, 2006), B.A. in Economics (ISEG/UTL, 2001).

Research interests:

Financial Markets; Corporate Finance; Financial Regulation.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Management Sciences and Economics (Universidade de Saragoça, 2004), MBA (ISEG/UTL, 1995), B.A. in Business Management (U. Évora, 1991).

Research interests:

Financial Reporting; Social and Environmental Accounting & Ethical Issues in Accounting; Public Sector Accounting & Not-For-Profit Accounting.

Associate Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Director of CEFAGE

Ph.D. in Business Management (U. Évora, 1997), B.A. in Business Management (U. Évora, 1983).

Research interests:

Business and Finance Management; Managerial Economics.

Researcher (Universidade Nova de Lisboa)

Ph.D. in Economics and Regulation of Telecommunications (University of Athens, 2013), M.Sc. in Economics and Management of Telecommunication Networks (University of Athens, 2008), B.A. in Economics (University of Piraeus, 2006).

Research interests:

Industrial Organization; Regulation in Network Industries; Telecommunications Economics.

Economist (Autoridade da Concorrência)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 2008), B.A. in Economics (U. Nova de Lisboa, 2002).

Research interests:

Microeconomics; Industrial Economics; Regulation Economics and Competition Policy; Telecommunications Economics; Energy Economics.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Vice-Director of CEFAGE

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Loughborough, 1999), M.Sc. in Economics (ISEG/UTL, 1995), B.A. in Economics (U. Évora, 1990).

Research interests:

Monetary Economics; European Integration; Economics of Education e Higher Education Policy.

Assistant Professor (Universidade de Évora)

Ph.D. in Economics (U. Loughborough, 1999), M.Sc. in Economics (ISEG/UTL, 1995), B.A. in Economics (U. Évora, 1990).

Research interests:

Financial Integration; International Finance; Economics of Education e Higher Education Policy.

Researcher (Universidade do Algarve)

Ph.D in Ciências Agrarias (U. Algarve, 2014), M.Sc. in Sustainable Management of Rural Spaces (U. Algarve, 2009), B.A. in Geography (U. Coimbra, 2005).

Research interests:

Forest Management; Agrarian Economy; Natural Resources Economy; Applied Geography.

Ph.D. Student in Tourism (U. Lisboa), B.A. in Management (ISG, 1994).

Research interests:

Management; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Tourism; Hospitality.

Ph.D. in Management (U. Évora, 2018), B.A. in Management (U. Nova Lisboa, 2009).

Research interests:

Entrepreneurship and Innovation; Decision Models; Banking; Efficiency Analisys.

Ph.D. Student in Managment (U. Beira Interior), M.Sc. in Psychology (U. Coimbra, 2004), B.A. in Social Work (Inst. Sup. Miguel Torga, 1999).

Research interests:

People management processes associated with high performance work systems; Processes related to the development of organizational ambidexterity in SME, through exploration and prospection and associated mechanisms; Triggering factors of organizational ambidexterity in SME and its relationship with organizational performance; Total quality management environments and its relationship with internal processes of people management in SME; Organization of work processes and people management and its effect on key organizational dysfunctions, such as absenteeism and presenteeism.

Ph.D. Student in Management (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Finance (Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad, Pakistan, 2011), B.A. in Commerce (University of the Punjab, Pakistan, 2007).

Research interests:

Financial Distress Prediction

Ph.D. Student in Economic and Business Sciences (U. Algarve), M.Sc. in Management (U. Técnica de Lisboa, 1997), B.A. in Business Organization and Management (Inst. Sup. Novas Profissões, 1987).

Research interests:

Economic and Business Sciences; Management.

Ph.D. Student in Management (U. Beira Interior), M.Sc. in Production Engineering (U. Federal de Santa Maria, Brasil, 2006), B.A. in Administration (U. Luterana do Brasil, 2000).

Research interests:

Family Business Management; Human Resource Management; Quality management.

Ph.D. Student in Management (U. Algarve), M.Sc. in Accounting (Islamic Azad University), B.A. in Accounting (Islamic Azad University).

Research interests:

Accounting

Ph.D. Student in Management (U. Beira Interior), M.Sc. in European Economy (U. Coimbra, 1997), B.A. in Economics (U. Coimbra, 1992).

Research interests:

Sustainability; Supply Chain Management; Operations.

Ph. D Student in Management (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Military Sciences (Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército, 2011), B.A.in Military Sciences (Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras, 1994).

Research interests:

Logistics; Supply Chain; Sustainability; Efficiency.

Ph.D. in Management (U. Évora, 2018), B.A. in Financial Economics (Universidad de Extremadura, 2007), B.A. in Financial Management (U.Aveiro., 2003).

Research interests:

Finances.

Ph.D. student in Economics (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Economics (The University of Leeds, 2000), B.A. in Economics (ISEG/UTL, 1997).

Research interests:

Index Number Theory; Econometrics; Housing Market.

Ph.D Student in Management (U. Évora), B.A. in Human Resources Management (ISLA - Leiria, 2011).

Research interests:

Strategy Management; Human Resources Management; Organizational Performance Management.

Ph.D. in Economics and Business (University of Cagliari, Italy, 2018), M.Sc. in Geography and Urban Planning (University of Tabriz, Iran, 2014), B.A. in Architecture (Nabi Akram University, Iran, 2011).

Research interests:

Residents apathy in tourism; Residents attitude; Community Involvement.

Ph.D. student in Management (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Accounting and Controlling (Federal University of Minas Gerais, 2009), M.Sc. in Business Administration (Dom Cabral Foundation, 2003), B.A. in Accounting and Finance (Federal University of Minas Gerais, 2000).

Research interests:

Accounting and Finance; Management Accounting and Control Systems; Mergers, Acquisitions and Business Associations; Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital; Strategy and Competitiveness; Management in Organizations.

Ph.D. in Sociology (U. Coimbra, 2018), M.Sc. in Management (U. Algarve, 2011), B.A. in Business Sciences (I.P. Leiria, 2004).

Research interests:

Social Sciences; Sociology; The (in)equality between women and men in the labor market and the performance of the countries of the European Union.

Ph.D. student in Economics (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Monetary and financial Economics (ISEG, 1999), B.A. in Economics (U.Évora, 1995).

Research interests:

Economic Growth; Applied Econometrics; Labour Economics; Financial Economics.

Ph.D. in Managemen (U.Beira Interior, 2018), B.A. in Business and Public Administration ( Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, 2006).

Research interests:

Council and Family Protocol in Succession Planning

Ph.D. student in Management (U. Beira Interior), M.Sc. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2013), B.A. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2011).

Research interests:

Corporate Finance; Capital Structure; Zero-leverage firms.

Ph.D. Student in Management (U. Beira Interior), M.Sc. in Business Management (ISCTE, 2001), B.A. in Accounting and Auditing (ISCAA-UA, 1996).

Research interests:

Audit; Internal Audit; Cooperation and trust; Internal control; Risk management; Corporate governance; Quality and environment.

Ph.D. in Management (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Management of Sustainable Local Development (U. de Pernanbuco, 2011), B.A. in Management (U. Federal da Paraíba, 2000).

Research interests:

Entrepreneurship; Experential Marketing.

Ph.D. Student in Management (U. Algarve), M.Sc. in Marketing Digital (U. Europeia, 2012), B.A. in Business Communication (Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, 2009).

Research interests:

Marketing; Tourism; Music Festivals

Ph.D. in Tourism (U. Algarve), M.Sc. in Hospitality Management (U. Algarve, 2014), B.A. in Hotel Management (U. Algarve, 2004).

Research interests:

Tourism, Hospitality and System Dynamics.

Ph.D. Student in Econmics (U. Evora), M.Sc. in Management (U. Lusófona do Porto, 2015), B.A. in Management and Development of Human Resources (U. Lusófona do Porto, 2014), B.A. in Business Management (U. Lusófona do Porto, 2014), B.A. in Economics (U. Lusófona do Porto, 2013).

Research interests:

Tourism Economics; Happiness Economics; Public Finance and Monetary Policy; Sustainability and Development.

Ph.D. student in Economics (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Management (ISEG/UTL, 2005), B.A. in Economics (ISEG/UTL, 1999).

Research interests:

Governo das sociedades.

Ph.D. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 2019), M.Sc. in Magagement (U. Beira Interior, 2016), B.A. in Management (U. Beira Interior, 1989).

Research interests:

Networks; Smart cities; Creative cities; Urban entrepreneurship; CSR; Mining industry; Management control systems; Intellectual capitall.

Ph.D. Student in Management (U. Minho), M.Sc. in Psychology (U. Minho, 2010), B.A. in Psychology (U. Minho, 2006).

Research interests:

Career Counseling in Adult Life; Life Design; Process Assessment and Results; Therapeutic Collaboration in Career Counseling.

Ph.D. student in Management (U. Évora), M.Sc. in Management (U.Évora, 2006), M.Sc. in Behaviour Consumer (IPAM), B.A. in Marketing Management (IPAM, 1999).

Research interests:

International Marketing; Integrated Marketing; Financial Marketing; Strategic Management; Behaviour Consumer; Branding; Corporate Reputation.