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Do Global CO2 Emissions from Fuel Consumption Exhibit Long Memory? A Fractional Integration Analysis

Belbute, J., A. Pereira (2017), "Do Global CO2 Emissions from Fuel Consumption Exhibit Long Memory? A Fractional Integration Analysis", Applied Economics, 49(40), 4055-4070.
Abstract:

In this article we use an autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average approach to measure the degree of fractional integration of aggregate world CO2 emissions and its five components coal, oil, gas, cement, and gas flaring. We find that all variables are stationary and mean reverting, but exhibit long-term memory. Our results suggest that both coal and oil combustion emissions have the weakest degree of long-range dependence, while emissions from gas and gas flaring have the strongest. With evidence of long memory, we conclude that transitory policy shocks are likely to have long-lasting effects, but not permanent effects. Accordingly, permanent effects on CO2 emissions require a more permanent policy stance. In this context, if one were to rely only on testing for stationarity and non-stationarity, one would likely conclude in favour of non-stationarity, and therefore that even transitory policy shocks have permanent effects. Our fractional-integration analysis highlights that this is not the case.