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The water surfaces’ ecosystem services and the opinion of different stakeholders: an approach based on goal programming

Xavier, A.S., M.B.C. Freitas, C.R. Antunes (2016), "The water surfaces’ ecosystem services and the opinion of different stakeholders: an approach based on goal programming", International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 15(2), 184-204.
Abstract:

The water surfaces have a high environmental value and allow the development of quality traditional products, which may take advantage of the local conditions. Since 1985, the state entities supported and accompanied the construction of a considerable number of dams, all located in the Guadiana river basin, in Algarve, south Portugal. In this context, it is important to understand how the stakeholders involved perceive these water surfaces, namely their role on the provision of environmental goods. This paper proposes a goal programming approach to simulate the preferences and the consensus of the stakeholders involved considering not only the preferences of the majority but also the minority, which often appears undervalued. The results show that the proposed methodology was able to provide new insights about stakeholders' opinions and preferences for a correct management.